Zhu, 'English through the Vernaculars of the Canton and Shiuhing Prefectures', c1857-c1862
朱瑞生 (Zhu Rui-sheng),
广肇英语 (English through the Vernaculars of the Canton and Shiuhing Prefectures, Guang-zhao yingyu),
unknown publisher, 224 pages (some pages missing),
Includes a preface.
Donated to the Chinese Museum by an unknown donor (1985.14.01).
Of the two Zhu phrasebooks (English through the Vernaculars of the Canton and Shiuhing Prefectures) known to exist, this is the earlier edition. It is probably not a first edition because there are corrections to the original text overprinted in red ink. The first two pages in this copy are missing and/or damaged and it does not have a cover. It contains no information about the publisher or year and place of publication. Nothing is known about its provenance. It was donated to the Chinese Museum around the time of its establishment c1985.
This volume has been dated as between c1857 and c1862. The earlier date is based on research into the years of gold rushes in the Victorian places mentioned in the book. The later date is based on another Zhu phrasebook edition which has a publication date of 1862 and has been identified as being published more recently than this phrasebook based on the fact that the overprinted red corrections in this volume have been corrected in this later phrasebook.
The elegance of the diction used in phrasebook's preface suggests that Zhu was an accomplished scholar. The handwriting is well executed, although there are errors in the English spelling of some words. It contains a preface by the compiler, table of contents, lists of the English letters written in upper and lower case and in different fonts, lists of key goldfield locations in California and Victoria [see map] and then a selection of useful phrases.
Four lines of information are offered for each phrase.
+ The first line is a Chinese translation of the English phrase written using a mixture of vernacular language and classical Chinese.
+ The second line is the English phrase.
+ The third line is the English phrase transliterated into Chinese characters using a Siyi dialect described as 'the speech of Shiuhing Prefecture Zhaofu (肇府话)', which refers to the language of the See Yup region.
+ The fourth line is a transliteration of the phrase into Chinese characters using a vernacular called 'the speech of Canton Prefecture (广府话)' which is one of the names for Cantonese still used today.
Zhu, 'English through the Vernaculars of the Canton and Shiuhing Prefectures', c1862
Stedman & Lee, 'A Chinese and English Phrase Book in the Canton Dialect', New York, 1888
Sun, 'The Self Educator', Sydney, c1892
Sun, 'The Self Educator', 2nd edn (enlarged), Sydney, c1892
Mo, 'Chinese Pronunciation of English Words/The Tallyman's Vocabulary', 9th edn, Hong Kong, 1923
Locations listed in Zhu's 'English through the Vernaculars of the Canton and Shiuhing Prefectures'
Guangzhou and Surrounds
Maa Louey (1835-1915) and his family
Maa Louey, undated
Georgie Ah Ling's house (1968)
Georgie Ah Ling's house (2012)
Donald is my home: George Ah Ling (c1884-1987)
Phrasebook use in China
Introduction to Chinese and Cantonese dialects
Speaking English with an 1860s Cantonese-English phrasebook
Learning English in 1950s Australia: Mr Ng’s experience
Learning English in 1930s China: Mr Leong's Experience
Arrival of the first gold escort, Melbourne, 1852
Arrival of Chinese immigrants to Little Bourke St, Melbourne, c1866
Opening of the new Chinese joss house, Emerald Hill, 1866
Chinese leaving for the diggings from Newstead on a Cobb & Co coach, c1865-1871
Chinese sluicing, near Beechworth, c1864
Chinese man working a mining cradle, Upper Ovens district, c1878
The Chinese hawker, 1873.
Christmas in Melbourne: A Chinese pedlar making presents to his customers, 1887
Lowe Kong Meng, 1866
Story education resources
Education Cantonese-English Phrasebook in Australia Education kit
Language, a Key to Survival: Cantonese-English Phrasebook in Australia Education Kit, produced by the Chinese Museum, 2013.
This education kit contains classroom activities designed for teachers to use in conjunction with this website story Language, A Key to Survival: Cantonese-English Phrasebooks in Australia.
It contains five classroom activities which support various areas of the Victorian curriculum (AusVELS), including AusVELS Humanities (History) Level 5 and AusVELS Humanities (History) Level 9.
The focus of this kit is on Zhu's English through the Vernaculars of the Canton and Shiuhing Prefectures (c1857-c1862) - a Cantonese to English phrasebook produced for Cantonese speakers arriving on the goldfields during the Californian and Victorian gold rushes.