Photograph - Daniel Mannix
Most Rev. D. Mannix, D.D. Archbishop of Melbourne [picture],
State Library of Victoria,
Daniel Mannix was one of the most prominent opponents to conscription in World War One. He announced his position late in the first referendum debate, and was particularly prominent in the second referendum.
Daniel Mannix was born in County Cork, Ireland, in 1864. He studied at Maynooth Seminary where he was ordained a priest in 1890, and later occupied the chair of moral theology, and the Presidency from 1903. In 1913 Daniel Mannix was appointed as Co-Adjutor (i.e. assistant and successor) Archbishop in Melbourne, to help Archbishop Thomas Carr – then 74 years old - in his duties. Carr died in May 1917 and Mannix succeeded him as Archbishop. One of the reasons that Mannix was considered unsuitable for appointment to an Irish see was that he was considered too moderate on the issue of home rule by many Irish nationalists.
Mannix initially supported the war effort, but gradually grew more strident in his opposition to the war. The Easter Rising of 1916 clearly shaped his attitude. While describing the rebellion as “deplorable” Mannix also laid most of the blame for the situation on the British government and its Irish supporters.
Despite his prominent role, it is arguable as to how influential Mannix's intervention was in the final result. Maurice Blackburn thought that Mannix may have pushed as many Protestants into voting 'Yes' as he convinced Catholics to vote 'No'. Others have suggested that predominantly working-class Catholics were inclined to vote 'No' even before Mannix's speeches. On the other hand, Mannix almost certainly gave Australian Catholics more confidence in these views.
In later life, Daniel Mannix was associated with anti-communist movements within the ALP, and the breakaway Democratic Labor Party.
Australia and World War One
Photograph - Send-off to the Brunswick Soldiers
Photograph - Brunswick Town Hall Honour Board
Memorial Plaque - Leonard William Telford
Poster - 'Australia has Promised Britain 50,000 More Men'
Labour Activists of Brunswick and Coburg
Photograph - Frank Anstey
Photograph - John Curtin
Photograph - Frank Hyett
Photograph - Maurice Blackburn
The Trade Unions' Anti-conscription Campaign
Handbill - 'The Blood Vote'
Cartoon - 'The Charge of the Would to God Brigade'
Handbill - Slave Conspiracy
The Women's Movement During the War
Photograph - Vida Goldstein
Photograph - Adela Pankhurst
Handbill - Conscription and Woman's Loyalty
Photograph - 'Women's No Conscription Demonstration'
Bella Lavender - Brunswick Campaigner
Photograph - Bella Lavender
Cartoon - Bella Lavender
Letter - Bella Lavender to Education Department
Photograph - Labor Women's Anti-conscription Committee
Religious Perspectives on Conscription
Handbill - Conscription and Christianity
Handbill - Conscription Questions for Voters
Handbill - How Would Christ Vote?
The Catholic Church and Conscription
Photograph - Daniel Mannix
Article - Cause of the War
Article - Revolt Victims
Cartoon - Australian Workman's Burden
Brunswick and Coburg During the Campaigns
Article - No Anti-conscription Meetings in Brunswick
Handbill - Public Meeting Against Conscription
Advertisement - Recruitment Meeting
Article - Remarkably Quiet Day
The Two Referendums
Handbill - Vote Thus Against Conscription
Article - Military Service Referendum Poll
Article - Conscription. Mr Hughes in Queensland
Article - 'Bourke'
The Soldiers' Votes
Diary - Claude Ewart
Photograph - Jack and Bert Grinton
Handbill - Returned Soldiers' No Conscription League Manifesto
Photograph - Soldiers Voting
Consequences for the Campaigners
Inscription - Police Just Raided
Article - 'Failure to Enrol'
Letter - Adela Pankhurst to Sallie Walsh
Article - 'Serenading Miss Pankhurst'
Story education resources
Education Against the Odds: The Victory over Conscription in WW1 Education Resource
The Against The Odds Education Resource provides a stimulating range of activities for students undertaking the compulsory Victorian History Curriculum Level 9/10 unit Australia at war (1914 – 1945). It helps students reflect on the complexities of the conscription debate through a range of analytical, creative and research tasks.
Education Against the Odds: The Victory over Conscription in WW1 Walking Map
The Against the Odds: The Victory over Conscription in WW1 Walking Map is a map of some of the sites described in the digital story or related to individuals therein. Download the map to use it for a self-guided tour in the area.