Article - Cause of the War
'Cause of the War', Bendigo Independent, 30 January 1917, p. 2.Contributors
One of the most famous speeches given during the anti-conscription campaign was delivered in Brunswick. While opening the St Ambrose School on 28 January 1917, Mannix declared that World War One was an “ordinary trade war”.
Mannix’s “trade war” speech occurred in the aftermath of the first referendum on conscription. Mannix had announced his opposition to conscription prior to this referendum, but only relatively late in the campaign. With this speech at the opening of St Ambrose School, however, Mannix became one of the leading anti-conscriptionists for the second referendum campaign. He also drew the ire of Prime Minister Hughes, and many other Protestant Australians, who increasingly accused Australian Catholics of disloyalty.
Mannix delivered anti-conscription speeches on several other occasions at St Ambrose’s. Before the first referendum, in November 1916, Mannix opened the garden fete with a major public address opposing conscription, after earlier speeches in Clifton Hill and Preston. On 22 April 1917, two weeks before the 1917 federal election, Mannix opened the hall at St Ambrose’s, and observed that if Hughes won the election there would be a second referendum on conscription despite the Prime Minister’s promise. Then on 18 November 1917, shortly before the second referendum, Mannix again opened the St Ambrose garden fete and spoke again against conscription.
Australia and World War One
Photograph - Send-off to the Brunswick Soldiers
Photograph - Brunswick Town Hall Honour Board
Memorial Plaque - Leonard William Telford
Poster - 'Australia has Promised Britain 50,000 More Men'
Labour Activists of Brunswick and Coburg
Photograph - Frank Anstey
Photograph - John Curtin
Photograph - Frank Hyett
Photograph - Maurice Blackburn
The Trade Unions' Anti-conscription Campaign
Handbill - 'The Blood Vote'
Cartoon - 'The Charge of the Would to God Brigade'
Handbill - Slave Conspiracy
The Women's Movement During the War
Photograph - Vida Goldstein
Photograph - Adela Pankhurst
Handbill - Conscription and Woman's Loyalty
Photograph - 'Women's No Conscription Demonstration'
Bella Lavender - Brunswick Campaigner
Photograph - Bella Lavender
Cartoon - Bella Lavender
Letter - Bella Lavender to Education Department
Photograph - Labor Women's Anti-conscription Committee
Religious Perspectives on Conscription
Handbill - Conscription and Christianity
Handbill - Conscription Questions for Voters
Handbill - How Would Christ Vote?
The Catholic Church and Conscription
Photograph - Daniel Mannix
Article - Cause of the War
Article - Revolt Victims
Cartoon - Australian Workman's Burden
Brunswick and Coburg During the Campaigns
Article - No Anti-conscription Meetings in Brunswick
Handbill - Public Meeting Against Conscription
Advertisement - Recruitment Meeting
Article - Remarkably Quiet Day
The Two Referendums
Handbill - Vote Thus Against Conscription
Article - Military Service Referendum Poll
Article - Conscription. Mr Hughes in Queensland
Article - 'Bourke'
The Soldiers' Votes
Diary - Claude Ewart
Photograph - Jack and Bert Grinton
Handbill - Returned Soldiers' No Conscription League Manifesto
Photograph - Soldiers Voting
Consequences for the Campaigners
Inscription - Police Just Raided
Article - 'Failure to Enrol'
Letter - Adela Pankhurst to Sallie Walsh
Article - 'Serenading Miss Pankhurst'
Story education resources
Education Against the Odds: The Victory over Conscription in WW1 Education Resource
The Against The Odds Education Resource provides a stimulating range of activities for students undertaking the compulsory Victorian History Curriculum Level 9/10 unit Australia at war (1914 – 1945). It helps students reflect on the complexities of the conscription debate through a range of analytical, creative and research tasks.
Education Against the Odds: The Victory over Conscription in WW1 Walking Map
The Against the Odds: The Victory over Conscription in WW1 Walking Map is a map of some of the sites described in the digital story or related to individuals therein. Download the map to use it for a self-guided tour in the area.